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Published in: Software. Where there is a blank in the column, this means that the pregnancy category assigned for drug molecule without ROA. Category B: Either animal reproduction studies have not demonstrated a fetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal reproduction studies have shown adverse effect that was not confirmed in the controlled studies in women in the 1 st trimester. Category D: There is positive evidence of human fetal risk but the benefit from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite risk. Category X: Studies in animal or human beings have demonstrated fetal abnormalities or there is evidence of fetal risk based on human experience or both.
The drug is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Some drug should be taken with food to minimize GI discomfort but others should be taken with food for better absorption. As the therapeutic group medications are topically administered, there is no such relationship.
Not to be used on open wounds or burns. Nasal Allergic and non allergic rhinitis mcg into each nostril twice daily. Contraindications Hypersensitivity. Acute infections uncontrolled by antimicrobial chemotherapy. Special Precautions Active or doubtfully quiescent tuberculosis, paradoxical bronchospasm; children, elderly; pregnancy and lactation. Adverse Drug Loss of skin collagen and SC atrophy; local hypopigmentation of deeply Reactions pigmented skin; dryness, irritation, epistaxis, rarely ulceration or perforation of the nasal septum; smell and taste disturbances; hoarseness and candidiasis of the mouth or throat.
Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus. Used in the treatment of intestinal inflammation. Used in the treatment of dermatological diseases. R01AD01 - beclometasone; Belongs to the class of topical corticosteroids used as nasal decongestants. R03BA01 - beclometasone; Belongs to the class of other inhalants used in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases, glucocorticooids. Otic Ear infections As 0. Special Precautions If large areas of skin are being treated, ototoxicity may be a hazard, particularly in children, elderly and those with renal impairment.
Adverse Drug Ototoxicity, if large areas used in high-risk groups; sensitisation, contact Reactions dermatitis, local irritation and itching. Drug Interactions Co-admin of gramicidin with framycetin reduces the risk of selecting resistant bacteria. Used in treatment of wounds.
R01AX08 - framycetin; Belongs to the class of other topical preparations used as nasal decongestants. S01AA07 - framycetin; Belongs to the class of antibiotics. Used in the treatment of eye infections. A You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it less plump and smooth. It might take longer to heal, too.
Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of the sun when it is strongest, using sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding sunlamps and tanning beds. Cigarette smoking also contributes to wrinkles. The wrinkling increases with the amount of cigarettes and number of years a person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug Administration has approved only a few for sun-damaged or aging skin.
It is, in terms of both weight, between 6 and 9 pounds, and surface area, about 2 square yards. Your skin separates the inside of your body from the outside world. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause dermatitis, hives and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance Skin Infections Your skin helps protect you from germs, but sometimes it can get infected by them.
Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Treatment of skin infections depends on the cause. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Skin cells give your skin color by making a substance called melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production.
Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body. If your body makes too much melanin, your skin gets darker. Pregnancy, Addison's disease and sun exposure all can make your skin darker. Vitiligo is a condition that causes patches of light skin. Albinism is a genetic condition affecting all of a person's skin. Infections, blisters and burns can cause lighter skin Rashes Also called: Dermatitis, Skin rash A rash is an area of irritated or swollen skin. It might be red and itchy, bumpy, scaly, crusty or blistered. Rashes are a symptom of many different medical conditions.
Things that can cause a rash include other diseases, irritating substances, allergies and your genetic makeup. Contact dermatitis is a common cause of rashes. It causes redness, itching and burning where you have touched an irritant, such as a chemical, or something you are allergic to, like poison ivy. Some rashes develop immediately.
Others form over several days. If you scratch your rash, it might take longer to heal. The treatment for a rash usually depends on its cause. Options include moisturizers, lotions, baths, cortisone creams that relieve swelling, and antihistamines, which relieve itching Atopic eczema Causes Atopic eczema is due to a hypersensitivity reaction similar to an allergy in the skin, which leads to long-term inflammation.
Eczema is most common in infants. Many people outgrow it by early adulthood. The condition tends to run in families. People with eczema often have a family history of allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever, or eczema. It is often a crusting, bubbling, or oozing rash.
Itching, which is sometimes intense, almost always occurs. Itching may start even before the rash appears. A skin lesion biopsy may be performed, but is not always needed to make the diagnosis. Consider light gloves if nighttime scratching is a problem. Keep the skin moist called lubricating or moisturizing the skin. Use ointments such as petroleum jelly , creams, or lotions 2 - 3 times a day.
Moisturizers should be free of alcohol, scents, dyes, fragrances, or other chemicals. Avoid anything that makes your symptoms worse. Short, cooler baths are better than long, hot baths.
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This will help trap moisture in the skin. Often you can buy them without a prescription. Some are available over the counter. These medications include fexofenadine Allegra , loratadine Claritin, Alavert , and cetirizine Zyrtec. If this doesn't work, you may need a stronger steroid medicine. You may need different strengths of steroids for different areas of skin. TIMs include tacrolimus protopic and pimecrolimus Elidel. Ask your doctor about concerns over a possible cancer risk associated with the use of these medicines. In children, it often clears beginning around age 5 - 6, but flareups will often occur.
In adults, it is generally a long-term or recurring condition. People with eczema tend to have dry skin that flares up more in the winter, when the air is cold and dry. This is also true when the nursing mother has avoided cow's milk in her diet. Other dietary restrictions may include eggs, fish, peanuts, and soy.
Eczema tends to run in families. Controlling stress, nervousness, anxiety, and depression can help in some cases. Keeping the skin well-moisturized and avoiding irritants is important. Allergic conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the tissue lining the eyelids conjuctiva due to a reaction from allergy-causing substances such as pollen and dander. Causes When your eyes are exposed to anything to which you are allergic, histamine is released and the blood vessels in the conjunctiva become swollen the conjunctiva is the clear membrane that covers the "white" of the eye.
Reddening of the eyes develops quickly and is accompanied by itching and tearing.
Allergies tend to run in families, although no obvious mode of inheritance is recognized. The incidence of allergy is difficult to determine, because many different conditions are often lumped under the term allergy. Keep in mind that rubbing the eyes makes the situation worse.
Unfortunately, this is not often practical. Discomfort can be relieved by applying cool compresses to the eyes or taking antihistamines by mouth many of these are available over- the-counter.
PHARMACY EBOOKS: QIMP (Quick Index of medical products and problems) Free Download
If home-care measures do not help, treatment by the health care provider may be necessary. However, the condition tends to recur if exposure to the offending agent continues. Possible Complications There are no serious complications; persistent discomfort is common. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you experience allergic conjunctivitis and it is unresponsive to over-the-counter treatment. Prevention Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis is best accomplished by avoiding the allergen, if it is known.
In many cases, however, this is impossible since the allergy-causing agents are everywhere nearly all the time. Itching Itching is a tingling or irritation of the skin that makes you want to scratch the affected area. Considerations Itching may occur all over the whole body generalized or only in one location localized.
Keep fingernails short to avoid damaging the skin from scratching. Family members or friends may be able to help by calling attention to your scratching. Avoid wearing rough clothing, particularly wool, over an itchy area. Try a skin-soothing oatmeal or cornstarch bath.
Dry skin is a common cause of itching. Look for an obvious cause of itching at home. It is sometimes easy for a parent to find the cause of a child's itching. Looking closely at the skin will help you identify any bites, stings, rashes, dry skin, or irritation. Often the cause of itching is fairly obvious, such as a mosquito bite.
Have the itching checked out as soon as possible if it keeps returning and does not have an obvious cause, you have total body itching, or you have hives that keep returning. Unexplained itching may be a symptom of a disease that could be serious. Betamethasone is used to treat the itching, redness, dryness, crusting, scaling, inflammation, and discomfort of various skin conditions. How should this medicine be used?
Betamethasone comes in ointment, cream, lotion, and aerosol spray in various strengths for use on the skin. It is usually applied one to four times a day.
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Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use betamethasone exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor. Do not apply it to other areas of your body or wrap or bandage the treated area unless directed to do so by your doctor. Wash or soak the affected area thoroughly before applying the medicine, unless it irritates your skin. Then apply the ointment or cream sparingly in a thin film and rub it in gently. To use the lotion on your scalp, part your hair, apply a small amount of the medicine on the affected area, and rub it in gently.
Protect the area from washing and rubbing until the lotion dries. You may wash your hair as usual but not right after applying the medicine. To apply an aerosol, shake well and spray on the affected area holding the container about 3 to 6 inches away. Spray for about 2 seconds to cover an area the size of your hand. Take care not to inhale the vapors. If you are spraying near your face, cover your eyes. Avoid prolonged use on the face, in the genital and rectal areas, and in skin creases and armpits unless directed by your doctor.
If you are using betamethasone on your face, keep it out of your eyes. If you are using betamethasone on a child's diaper area, do not use tight- fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects. Do not apply cosmetics or other skin preparations on the treated area without talking with your doctor. The plastic may be held in place with a gauze or elastic bandage or adhesive tape on the normal skin beside the treated area.
Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves may be used for the hands, plastic bags for the feet, or a shower cap for the scalp. If the affected area is moist, you can leave the edges of the plastic wrap partly unsealed or puncture the wrap to allow excess moisture to escape. Usually plastic wraps are left in place not more than 12 hours each day. What special precautions should one follow?
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If you become pregnant while using betamethasone, call your doctor immediately. What side effects can this medication cause? Betamethasone may cause side effects. Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it according to the package instructions. Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Do not use it to treat other skin conditions. Clobetasol Why is this medication prescribed? Clobetasol is used to treat the itching, redness, dryness, crusting, scaling, inflammation, and discomfort of various skins and scalp conditions.
Clobetasol comes in cream and ointment for use on the skin and in lotion to apply to the scalp. Clobetasol is used once or twice a day. Use clobetasol exactly as directed. Do not use clobetasol for longer than 14 days without your doctor's approval. Thoroughly clean the infected area, allow it to dry, and then gently rub the medication in until most of it disappears. Use just enough medication to cover the affected area. You should wash your hands after applying the medication.
The scalp lotion should be applied directly from the squeeze bottle to the affected area. Clobetasol can be absorbed into your body if used in large amounts and can cause harmful effects. Clobetasol may cause side effects. What other information should one know? Do not let clobetasol get into your eyes, nose, or mouth, and do not swallow it. Do not apply dressings, bandages, cosmetics, lotions, or other skin medications to the area being treated.
Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Why is this medication prescribed? Dexamethasone reduces the irritation, redness, burning, and swelling of eye inflammation caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, infection, allergy, or foreign bodies in the eye. It is sometimes used after eye surgery. Dexamethasone comes as eye drops and eye ointment. Use dexamethasone exactly as directed. If you are using the suspension form of dexamethasone eye drops Maxidex , shake the bottle well before each dose. It is not necessary to shake dexamethasone eye drop solution. Avoid touching the dropper tip against your eye or anything else.
Placing drops on the surface of the eyeball can cause stinging. Do not blink. Do not wipe or rinse it off. Wash your hands again. The ointment must be kept clean. Other uses for this medicine Dexamethasone eye drops may be used to reduce redness, burning, and swelling or inflammation in the ear. Talk to your doctor about the possible risks of using this drug for your condition.
What special precautions one should follow? If you become pregnant while using dexamethasone, call your doctor immediately. Talk to your doctor about stopping to breast-feed if you use dexamethasone eye drops. If the brand of dexamethasone you are using contains benzalkonium chloride, wait at least 15 minutes after using the medicine to put in soft contact lenses.
Dexamethasone may cause side effects. What storage conditions are needed for this medicine? Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture not in the bathroom. Fluocinolone Topical Why is this medication prescribed? Fluocinolone is used to treat the itching, redness, dryness, crusting, scaling, inflammation, and discomfort of various skin conditions.
Fluocinolone comes in ointment, cream, solution, shampoo, and oil in various strengths for use on the skin. It usually is applied two to four times a day.
Use fluocinolone exactly as directed. Then apply the ointment, cream, solution, or oil sparingly in a thin film and rub it in gently. Use the shampoo as you would any normal shampoo. Wet your hair and scalp. Apply the shampoo and gently massage the scalp. Rinse with water. To use a solution on your scalp, part your hair, apply a small amount of the medicine on the affected area, and rub it in gently. Protect the area from washing and rubbing until the solution dries.
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If you are using fluocinolone on your face, keep it out of your eyes. If you are using fluocinolone on a child's diaper area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. The plastic may be held in place with a gauze or elastic bandage or adhesive tape on normal skin beside the treated area. Usually wraps are left in place no more than 12 hours each day. Call your doctor if the treated area gets worse or if burning, swelling, redness, or oozing of pus develops. What special precautions should I follow?
If you become pregnant while using fluocinolone, call your doctor immediately. Fluocinolone may cause side effects. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat.
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Do not allow it to freeze. Fluticasone Topical Why is this medication prescribed? Fluticasone, a corticosteroid, is used to reduce inflammation and relieve itching, redness, dryness, and scaling associated with various skin disorders. Fluticasone comes as an ointment and cream to apply to the skin. It usually is applied two to four times a day at evenly spaced intervals. Use fluticasone exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by doctor.
Thoroughly clean the affected area, allow it to dry, and then gently rub the medication in until most of it disappears. If you become pregnant while using fluticasone, call your doctor. Fluticasone may cause side effects. Hydrocortisone Topical Why is this medication prescribed?
Hydrocortisone is available with or without a prescription. Low-strength preparations 0. It is also used to relieve the discomfort of mouth sores. Hydrocortisone comes as ointment, cream, lotion, liquid, gel, medicated cloth towelette, and spray for use on the skin; foam, suppositories, cream, ointment, and enema for rectal use; and paste for use in the mouth. Hydrocortisone is usually used one to four times a day for skin problems. For mouth sores, it usually is applied two or three times a day after meals and at bedtime.
If mouth sores do not begin to heal within 7 days, call your doctor. For colitis, hydrocortisone usually is used every night or twice a day every morning and night for 2 or 3 weeks. Although colitis symptoms may improve within 3 to 5 days, 2 to 3 months of regular enema use may be required.
Call your doctor if your colitis symptoms do not improve within 3 weeks. For proctitis, hydrocortisone usually is used one or two times a day for 2 to 3 weeks, then if necessary every other day until your condition improves. Proctitis symptoms may improve within 5 to 7 days. For hemorrhoids, hydrocortisone usually is used twice a day every morning and night for 2 to 6 days. Follow the directions on the label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part that you do not understand.
Use hydrocortisone exactly as directed. If you obtained hydrocortisone without a prescription and your condition does not improve within 7 days, stop using it and call your doctor. Call your doctor if any area treated with hydrocortisone gets worse or if redness, swelling, or oozing of pus develops. Then apply sparingly in a thin film and rub it in gently. To use the lotion, liquid, or gel on your scalp, part your hair, apply a small amount of the medicine on the affected area, and rub it in gently.
Protect the area from washing and rubbing until the medication dries. To apply the aerosol spray, shake well and spray on the affected area holding the container about 3 to 6 inches 7. Avoid prolonged use on the face, in the genital and rectal areas, and in skin creases and armpits unless directed to do so by your doctor.
If you are using hydrocortisone on your face, keep it out of your eyes. If you are using hydrocortisone on a child's diaper area, do not use tight- fitting diapers or plastic pants. Do not apply cosmetics or other skin preparations on the treated area without talking to your doctor. Usually plastic wraps are left in place no more than 12 hours each day. Apply the rectal cream or ointment externally to the anal area. Some nonprescription creams may be applied to the genital and anal areas; read the label of the product you are using carefully.
The hydrocortisone enema comes with directions that you should follow carefully. Lie on your left side while using the enema and for 30 minutes afterward. Try to hold the enema in for at least 1 hour and preferably all night. The rectal foam also comes with directions that you should follow carefully. A special applicator is provided and always should be used to apply the foam. Do not insert any part of the container into your rectum. After using the applicator, take it apart and clean it thoroughly with warm water.
If the suppository is too soft to insert, chill it in the refrigerator for 30 minutes or run cold water over it before removing the foil wrapper. A left-handed person should lie on the right side and raise the left knee. Edition: 6th ed. Carter with contributions by Pharmaceutical marketing in the 21st century Mickey C. Smith, editor. Colour atlas of medicinal plants by Jarald, E. Pharmacy practice for technicians Don A. Ballington, Robert J. Edition: 3rd ed. Cooper and Gunn's dispensing for pharmaceutical students. Edition: 62th ed. Pharmaceutical marketing Ajoy S. Joseph by Joseph, Ajoy S.
Dictionary of Medicinal Plants by Sammbramurty, A. Edition: 1sst ed. No cover image available Pharmacology Laboratory Manual: v. Singhal by Singhal, K. Pharmacology Laboratory Manual: v. Practical physical pharmacy R.